Hunting and fishing on Ozark National Scenic Shores

Ozark National Scenic Roads

The Ozark National Scenic Riverways in southern Missouri is an oasis for overseas men throughout the Midwest. Known for its springs, caves and clear rivers, this national park has something to offer for everyone. The list of leisure opportunities is long and varied. Includes canoeing, fishing, hunting, wildlife viewing and hiking. The springs and mountains are beautiful beyond description, and many visit the park just for a look.


The park includes some of the most popular canoeing waters in the world. The Current River and Jacks Fork are heavily fed by fountains and are navigable year round. Between the two rivers, the park provides about 320 kilometers of floating water. The rivers are clear, cold and greenish blue. Any buoy on any river will take you past mountains, springs and cliffs. There are many gravel bars along the way, perfect for picnicking, camping or just relaxing. There are no rapids in the rivers that pose a serious threat, although fast runs and shoals are common. Many canoe rentals cater to the river, so finding a boat and a shuttle is not a problem. Here are some of the most special floats.

MonkeysForkRiver: Buck Hollow for Rhymer's Landing

This 9-mile float on the upper Jacks Fork River flows through a beautiful gorge. The river is relatively small and moves rapidly. Water is a series of rapid rapids and deep pools, all appealing to the eye. This part of the river is quite remote, and few floats enjoy this beautiful stretch of water. The fishing for smallmouth bass and sunfish is excellent. Only small springs feed the river so upstream, and it is best to float in spring and autumn. During the summer, flotation is possible if you are willing to drag some rifles.

MonkeysForkRiver: Eminence to two rivers

This 8-mile float on the lower Jacks Fork River is one of the most beautiful (and popular) floats in the park. Flowing through a variety of small mountains and deep valleys, the scenery is amazing. The bottom fork is quite wide and deep, but the water is surprisingly clear and cold. You'll find a lot more floaters than upstream, but the crowds are usually quite bearable. Bass fishing is very good and the river is easily floated all year round. The withdrawal is just below the junction of the river with the current river in the two river camp.

CurrentRiver: Baptist Field to Cedar Grove

This 7-mile float near the headwaters of the Current River has a lot to offer. The river goes through several springs and high cliffs, and there are many deep blue pools. The river has a high gradient in this area, with many fast rifles separated by small pools. The river is not particularly large here, but it is always deep and wide enough to make it easy to float. Still, relatively few fluctuate on this stretch, mainly because it is serviced only by one or two canoe rentals. This is a first class fishing float with excellent populations of rainbow and brown trout.

CurrentRiver: Akers Ferry to Pulltite Campground

This is probably the most popular car in the National Park. At this point, the Current river is really at its best. The river is still very cold and clear, and has grown to a size large enough to accommodate a large number of floaters. Some of the park's largest mountains can be seen from the river, and many small fountains can be seen entering the river. The river here has some fast rapids, but it also has some long slow pools that are suitable for just sitting and relaxing. Because this is where the river flows from cold to warm water, the fishing possibilities are quite varied. Rainbow trout, smallmouth bass and goggles are common. The river is easily floatable all year round.


The Ozark National Scenic Riverways is home to one of the largest spring complexes in the world. The springs form in cracks where groundwater supplies reach the surface. Some springs are just small springs and others form large streams that appear out of nowhere. The largest (the aptly named Big Spring, which feeds the Current River), puts more water on average than any other source in the country. Most sources come somewhere between these two extremes. The fountains are beautiful beyond description, flowing in emerald blue of unfathomable depths. Many spring pools are over 30 meters deep. Due to this incredible beauty, many springs have become popular tourist attractions. Park Regulations do not allow fishing, swimming or boating in spring or spring. Here are some very special fonts worth visiting.

Alley spring

This spring, which feeds the Jacks Fork River, is probably the most visited in the park. This high performance spring features a beautiful spring and a watercress lined branch. The most popular attraction of spring, however, is the old poolside windmill, which was built in 1800 to generate power. The mill is no longer used, but still offers a glimpse into the history of the Ozarks.

Welch spring

This spring along the Upper Current River forms a deep pool just above the river. Spring produces about 150 CFS per second and doubles the size of the Current river. Like Alley Spring, however, is best known for its history. In the mid-nineteenth century, it was the location of a health resort. Although the business proved futile, the ruins of the building still remain today and provide an interesting spectacle for visitors. As a side note, the Current River pool below the spring junction is very popular with trout fishermen and has produced many trophy rainbows over the years.

Big spring

Big Spring, which flows into the Current River, is tied for the largest spring title in the country. 400 cubic feet per second of cold clear water roars out of a cave, instantly forming a large river. The spring branch flows into the lower Current River, which makes it much larger and colder. Spring is especially impressive at high flow rates.


The Ozark National Scenic Riverways offers a wide range of fishing possibilities. The most popular species include sea bass, rainbow trout, brown and brown eyed trout and green sunfish, but walleye, pickerel and various rough fish are also available. The exceptionally clear waters of the Jacks Fork and Current River provide an incredibly attractive fishing environment, and it seems that world-class game fish stocks are just a bonus.

Jacks Fork Fishing

The Jacks Fork River is one of the best hot water fisheries in the Ozarks. Sea bass and goggle eye are by far the most sought after species throughout the river, but you will also find good bass and pick populations in the slow water. There is good fishing from the south of the river to the junction with the Current river. Generally, you will find fewer crowds and larger fish in the gorge above Alley Spring, but the lower river also offers good fishing and is more convenient to access. While fishing with Wade is quite possible, float fishing is by far the most popular technique.

HigherCurrentRiver fishing

The Upper Current River is loosely defined as the water between Montauk State Park and Akers Ferry, also known to fishermen as the "trout section". Between Montauk State Park and Cedar Grove, brown trout are the main attraction, while there are also many rainbows. Between Cedar Grove and Akers Ferry, fishing is subject to fishing and fishing regulations, and 10 "rainbows are stocked about a dozen times a year. The upper current usually has a high gradient, but there are no actual rapids. to speak famous trout water, and the number of fishermen will reflect this. Float fishing and boat fishing are equally popular, with the best fishing conditions above Cedar Grove. There are about 20 miles of water and all of good for trout. bass fishing is also pretty decent between Cedar Grove and Akers Ferry.

MiddleCurrentRiver fishing

The middle Current River houses the classic water of the smallmouth river. The middle stream is generally defined as the water between the Akers Ferry and the intersection with the Jacks Fork River (also known as two rivers), at a distance of nearly 64 kilometers. The first 20 kilometers from Akers Ferry to Round Spring offer a mix of cold and hot water fisheries with rainbow trout and sea bass. Below Round Spring, smallmouth bass becomes king. They hide in all puddles and run in this part of the river, and the fish density is very high. Due to the lack of special regulations and extremely high fishing pressure, the size of the fish is usually quite small. The ten to fourteen inch bass is the norm, with some larger and some smaller. Eyeglasses and sunglasses are also very common. There are some areas to fish, but a canoe will give you access to some more water.

LowerCurrentRiver fishing

The Current River from Two Rivers to the Arkansas State Line provides about 70 kilometers of very large water for fishermen. Smallmouth still reigned supreme. Although no special regulation exists on the lower river yet, the size of the river allows many to grow in trophy proportions, and the average size of the bass is considerably larger than any other part of the river. By this time, the river has narrowed considerably, making boat fishing much easier. There are still some rifles, but they tend to be relatively short and are separated by many long pools. Below Van Buren, some new species come into play, including walleye, crappie and largemouth bass. Walleye fishing tends to be an intermittent proposition, but it is usually common below Big Spring and is even more common the closer you are to the Arkansas border. Crappie and largemouth bass also become common in the huge waters below Big Spring, with the best populations in slow tides. There are some productive areas for fish-mouth and panfish fishing, but sea fishing is very difficult so far. Most anglers use canoes or Jon river boats.


There are some excellent hunting opportunities in the National Park. Unlike most areas managed by the National Park Service, hunting is allowed according to state regulations. Deer, turkeys, squirrels, rabbits and a limited population of highland birds can be found. The black bear is becoming somewhat common in the park, but it's not cool to hunt it yet. There is a good diversity of habitats in the area, with river valleys and mountains available to the hunter. Also, it is always a fun adventure to combine a day of fishing and hunting. Remember that hunting is not allowed in developed areas of the park.

Whitetail deer

Most Riverways hunters target deer. Deer numbers are very good throughout the park. River valleys are the most obvious choice for the deer hunter. The Jacks Fork and Current River valleys consist mainly of small trees, willows and other shrubs. There are also some areas of ancient fields. All of these areas work well for deer in both the bedding and feeding areas. Many hunters overlook the mountains and mountain ranges that surround the river valleys. This is a mistake. Large oak grove creates large acorn harvests each year, and many deer take advantage. Deer densities tend to be a little farther from rivers, but they are also less targeted by hunters. Areas close to the Mark Twain National Forest, as well as conservation areas, offer even more areas for the hunter.


Turkey is also common in the Current and Jacks Fork River Valley. The thick woods surrounding the river are the perfect habitat for these cunning birds, and the park offers some of the best wild turkey hunting anywhere. The fall and spring seasons produce good results.


Camping is extremely popular in the park. There are many popular campgrounds in the park, including Pulltite, Two Rivers, Cedar Grove, Eagle's Park (privately owned, but in the park) and Big Spring. Floating, fishing, walking and hunting opportunities are found within easy reach of all these areas. Stray camping is also allowed anywhere in the park as long as you are 100 feet from the road. A popular technique is to row in a nearby gravel bar, set up a tent and wake up in the morning, fish or hunt. You can also walk to an area and set up a tent, which will allow you to hunt or fish in solitude.

There are recreational opportunities of all kinds on Ozark National Scenic Riverways. Whether you like hunting, fishing, camping, canoeing, sightseeing or just relaxing, this is a great place to schedule your next vacation.

Source by Davidson Manning

A vacation trip to historic Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor, a historic site on Oahu Island, offers visitors an unforgettable experience. Scroll down and learn more about this place that changed the course of the country in World War II and a few more attractions around it.

Welcome to Pear Harbor, Oahu Island's most visited tourist destination. Knowing the rich American history, you will surely remember the experience for a long time. Here are some of the interesting facts about this place and why you should visit this little piece of Hawaii's historic island.

Pearl Harbor, also called 'Pu' uloa ', is located on Oahu Island, west of Honolulu, the state capital of Hawaii. This site is known for the Japanese attack in 1941, when 1,177 sailors drowned in the water. The motif was born in 1931 when the Japanese began their operation to create an empire across Asia. After attacking China in 1937, they moved to Thailand and the Philippines to achieve their goal. Great Britain (UK) was against this action and began to stop aid and freeze Japanese assets in each country. After the United Kingdom, the United States also pressured Japan to stop its move. To respond to the US, the Japanese began attacking through aircraft and dwarf submarines. Although the Americans cracked the attack code, they could not figure out the exact location before the attack. The Japanese attacked and turned the day into a black day, as the Americans damaged the fleet and hunted 2,350 lives, 1,177 from Arizona.

At Pearl Harbor, you can closely explore history by visiting the Arizona Memorial Visitors Center. You would have the opportunity to board the Navy launch ship to the Arizona Memorial, where the names of all 1,177 sailors and Marines are written on a marble wall. During your excursion to Pearl Harbor you will enjoy beautiful Oahu Island attractions including the Polynesian Cultural Center, North Shore and some world famous museums such as the USS Bowfin Submarine, the USS Missouri Battleship and the Pacific Aviation Museum. The charming city of Honolulu is also close to this place where fun and pleasure are right for all visitors.

For accommodations, you need not worry as many hotels, rentals and condos are offering quality facilities with all modern amenities and fun activities, depending on your budget. There are a multitude of restaurants offering fresh seafood as well as traditional Hawaiian dishes. To meet your shopping needs, you can relocate to Honolulu City, where several world-class shopping destinations are waiting for you.

Without a doubt, a trip to Pearl Harbor would be the unique experience in your life, unforgettable for a long time. To book your trip in advance, you can browse the Internet, where some reliable websites offer a variety of tour packages, depending on your budget. Along with travel facilities, they provide accommodation and tour guides to show all attractions. You need to research well by comparing the prices and facilities offered by the websites. This would help you get the right package for your Pearl Harbor tour from a reputable tour company.

Source by Shaker Morad

Pearl Harbor – Memorial site honored by USS military

Pearl Harbor is a water port on the most famous island known as O'Ahu in Hawaii. This port is covered by most of the surroundings, with deep naval lands and waters. For the US Pacific Fleet, this port is home. In the year 1941, there was an attack by the Empire of Japan on Pearl Harbor. This attack brought to the Second World War. The attack on this site destroyed many army equipment, including 11 ships, 188 aircraft and 68 civilians, and about 2403 US military soldiers were killed. At that time, three aircraft carriers were not in that port. These three aircraft are safe and undamaged. In World War II, the US attack was marked and the other war of the Pacific War began. This war was known as the Pearl Harbor bombing and also the Battle of Pearl Harbor.

The most common name for this attack is just Pearl Harbor. In 2010, this site turned 69 years old. In the war, it was the attack of the Japanese and the entry of the United States. After visiting this place, you can see many sites worth seeing. Every individual knows the attack on this place, so many tourist trips made from various places every year. It is a perfect destination if you want to experience a day trip. There are about five major famous places or, say, places that are known to be historic and are a landmark of Hawaii's O 'ahu Island. The place you can go is the USS Arizona Memorial, where you can see that they were hit by 1,760 bombs that were piercing armor. Here you can learn the techniques of war such as attacking the enemy and also explore some historical point that was attacked.

Many visitors come here to respect the brave soldiers. In this Pearl Harbor, you can see the names written on the wall of brave soldiers who lost their lives. The Missouri Memorial battleship is another historic site where the Japanese surrender and the end of World War II. The surrender deck is the memorial deck. It is a museum that displays the three wars. It would be the best experience to spend a vacation in this beautiful place where the USS won the war and see so many travelers traveling from faraway countries. At the USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park, you can learn the techniques and how the battle was done under water in the sea. At the Pearl Harbor Museum, you can see various royal weapons and torpedoes that are displayed here. Even at the Pacific Aviation Museum, one can see the aircraft used during the war and what are the types, because some are fighter jets while others are bombers. Another place in Pearl Harbor to note is the USS Oklahoma Memorial website.

Source by Suzane Fadrik

How to Tell the Difference Between a Real and False Route 66 Sign

Summer is here and many of us want to hit the road for a vacation and what comes to mind is the famous 'Mother Road'. or Route 66.

Although Route 66 was deactivated in favor of Interstate 40 in the early 1970s, there are still parts of the Road, some in large sections that run parallel to the modern highway.

After a cross country trip, why not a sign to help you remember your vacation?

If you take a look at eBay, you will see a large number of 'authentic Route 66' signs, when in reality some of them, if any, are real. Most are made of original molds and reformulated in tin or steel.

So some things to look for. We have all seen modern road signs and they are quite large. plus 24×24. If you see a sign of 'Route 66' Authentic & # 39; smaller than that, is likely to be false.

However, some of the signs were minor, but they were of the 1930s shield type and made of large caliber steel, and very few of them survived and, if they did, are in collections.

When you find a 24×24 signal, look for it. Are you worn out? Nicked? A signpost & # 39; shadow & # 39; on the back of years sitting outside? Also note the mounting holes. The road crew were harsh with these signals, as treating them as a collectible was the farthest thing from their minds.

Mounting holes should show signs of chips and scratches where the screws holding the signal in place have been installed and removed.

Don't let reflective ink fool you, some signs did it, some didn't.

When you look at the plate and the back, look at the edges, are they worn and dirty or shiny metal?

Other factors like stains, drip marks should come down, this is especially important in Kansas Sunflower signs. There are many out there, but they are a road 99 upside down. Remember that Route 66 only traveled 3.7 kilometers; therefore, although there are signs of Kansas, they are rare.

Therefore, if you are unable to inspect the sign yourself, ask the dealer to show the back or edges and close the mounting holes.

Sometimes people sell 'US', which is new, old stock, but don't be fooled, finding a stock of Route 66 signposts in a deserted Highway Signpost store no longer happens.

All of the above tips apply to most signs, some of the signs have been mounted on the large green planks above the overpass and may not have many signs of wear, but with age, and the aluminum side elements should look cloudy in appearance. .

If you come across an authentic sign, be prepared to spend some money, however, most can be between $ 300 to $ 1000 and competition on eBay can be fierce.

In the next article, I will show you how to identify a false signal from the Route 66 reflector.

Source by Derik Lattig

Camp Abbot – A Page of World War II History

Along Highway 97, near Central Oregon's quaint resort community, Sunriver, is a roadside sign erected in 2009. It reads: "Historic World War II Veterans Highway." Some of the road vehicles pass the sign and then turn into Sunriver, while most traffic continues quickly. Many of the drivers who pass the sign do not know the exact location of Camp Abbot, nor its historical significance. However, Camp Abbot trainees were the largest military training exercise in Pacific Northwest history.

Construction of Abbot Camp began in late 1942. Less than two years later, it closed. Located in a pine cathedral, Camp Abbot was a hive of activity as a US Army training center. Thousands trained here. The remoteness did not diminish their enthusiasm to become combat engineers; they were an elite group.

The afternoon sun is burning in the treetops, in the clearing of what is now the Sunriver community and Deschutes National Forest. It takes some imagination to understand what the life of those who train in this now silent forest must have been like.

In need of ready training for combat engineers, the War Department established and developed Abbot Camp along the Deschutes River near Bend, Oregon, in five months. Unlike the army forts, built as permanent facilities, Camp Abbot was built only as a temporary facility. It was one of only three WWII combat engineer training centers in the United States, the other two being Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.

The first trainees arrived in March 1943. Ten thousand soldiers trained in 17-week cycles. More than 90,000 combat engineers trained at Camp Abbot before the base was closed in 1944. They trained in infantry, armor, artillery, air forces, engineers, and support units on specific combat problems, such as attacking and defending a line of the river and an assault and occupation of defensive positions.

Prior to the commencement of training, Army engineers had to complete infrastructure projects such as airfield construction, supply depots, and a Signal Corps battalion as a communications network for maneuvering. Army fighter planes were used to support ground forces. These exercises simulated real combat and lasted several days, often without stopping.

Occasionally, civil roads such as US Highways 97 and 395 and Cascade Mountain roads needed to be used during the exercises. Residents were advised to be careful and obey military police guidelines when traveling anywhere in the maneuvering area. In November 1943, the army declared that it would repair roads damaged by tanks and other heavy vehicles used in its operations.

The exercise called the "Oregon Maneuver" was considered a success. Involving over 100,000 US soldiers and airmen, it is considered the largest military training exercise in Pacific Northwest history. Upon completion, participants were sent to North Africa for preparation before participating in combat operations in Italy. A division went to Hawaii to prepare for the invasion of the Philippines and fighting in Okinawa. Another division landed in France and participated in combat operations in northern France, Rhineland and central Germany.

Camp Abbot, located in the High Desert, north of the small town of La Pine and south of Bend, had only one function during its 14 months of existence – serving as a training center for the WWII Corps of Engineers. Some of the former military camp land was sold for development in the mid-1960s and became a luxury resort community. One building remains of the original field. The still beautiful wooden officers club is now known as the "Great Hall" and rented for events such as conventions and weddings. Some guests know instantly that they have entered a story page.

Source by Kathy Manney

Route 66 Adventure Handbook

"Get Your Kicks on Route 66" was a popular 1940s song by Nat King Cole, which helped bring the long stretch of road – Route 66 – to fame. Now you can have your own kicks on Route 66 if you take the Route 66 Adventure Manual as it will take you to many of the hidden and not so hidden gems along this road.

Route 66 was one of the first highways in the United States, scheduled for completion in 1926. It runs from Chicago to California and passes through Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, en route to Santa Monica California. In the 1950s, after President Eisenhower signed a bill providing for the creation of the "interstate highway system" and numerous large "super highways" being built, many people assumed that the famous road was virtually dead. But while these new highways challenged the reign of Route 66 and, as the author of the Route 66 Adventure Manual notes, it seemed for a while that the famous road was disappearing, fortunately, travelers eventually came to recognize the unique qualities of this famous route, and It is now enjoying a resurgence.

Now in its fifth edition, the Route 66 Adventure Handbook is divided into chapters by state, ranging from southwest Illinois to California. Each chapter includes numerous attractions, much more than I've seen in other travel books. And many of these attractions are missing points in other books, places that are as unique as the Cadillac Ranch, where the "art" of the car shows real partially buried "Cadillacs" … which they say are positioned at the same angle as the sides of the big ones. Pyramids of Egypt "(p. 290) In addition, each chapter also includes a" Farther "section where attractions can be found within walking distance of the famous route.

The Route 66 Adventure Handbook is written in an easy to read / follow style and the layout is easy on the eye, making this book perfect for repeatedly capturing and consulting. There is so much to choose from for your travel visits on your pages that you will want to start researching the book long before your travel begins. My best pick from the countless attractions of this book should be "Big Brutus" – a giant, and I mean GIANT! ("the second largest ever built") – hydraulic shovel in West Mineral, KS. A photograph of Brutus shows a car parked next to him, giving him a good idea of ​​how big Brutus is. And I must mention all the photos, because this book is full of them – almost every attraction mentioned is accompanied by a good, clear photo. To make location even easier, below each photo is the GPS location of the attraction. Whether you're planning a trip to explore Route 66, whether it's a quick getaway along a part of the road or an adventure on a full over 2,000-mile route, be sure to take the Route 66 Adventure Manual with you to win miss a single attraction on this famous road.

Quill says: John Steinbeck called Route 66 "The Mother Road" in The Grapes of Wrath, and for good reason. Now, with the Route 66 Adventure Guide, you can explore this fantastic stretch of asphalt and enjoy all the unique gems it has to offer, jewelry that others without the guide might miss. Get the book, get in your car and start driving!

Source by Ellen F Feld

Is there such a thing as a romantic camping getaway in Minnesota?

Today, Norm Goldman, editor of and is
pleased to have as our guest, Tom Watson, author and freelancer

Tom is the author of: 60 Hikes within 60 Miles: Twin Cities: and Best in Camping Tents: Minnesota: (both published by Menasha Ridge Publishing)

Tom is also the author of How to Think Like a Survivor: A Guide to Wilderness Emergencies (in the summer of & # 39; 05, published by Creative Publishing, International)

Good morning Tom and thanks for agreeing to participate in our interview.


When did your passion for hiking and camping begin and what kept you going?


Good morning to you and thanks for this opportunity. My father was handsome
Active outdoors. After leaving the Navy, he opened a hobby shop that
carried many sporting goods. I was able as a boy growing up in the east
Missouri, a chance to try all kinds of equipment – baits, rifles, bows
and arrows. Also, as my father liked to camp, we took advantage of the
myriads of places in Missouri for the early camp. My cousins ​​lived there too,
and they were avid campers too. So since I was about seven, I spent a
most of the summers outdoors.

When I was thinking about college – in the late 1960s, my parents were
divorced and I lived with my mother during the school years. I wanted
to maintain some outdoor exposure so I decided to go into forestry in the
University of Minnesota, St. Louis Paul campus. All these factors and my
the growing love for the natural sciences still keeps me going today.


As many of our readers are interested in romantic getaways, you could
Do you describe eight of Minnesota's most romantic and unique camping areas?
Why are they romantic?


This requires my interpretation of "romantic" and "single"
campsites. I am primarily a primitive camper, minimal facilities, minimal facilities

For me, a romantic site is private, remote and in a better way than
Medium scenery or natural attractions.

Based on this, I was able to list almost all campsites in the BWCA Desert as well as the Voyageurs National Park – most of which are accessible only by water. With regard to drive-up sites and those with a little walk-in access (my favorites), I need to list the following:

* Lake Maria State Park – secluded locations scattered along a hill under
a canopy full of oaks and maples – fabulous fall colors! Great hiking trail,

* Great River Bluffs State Park – This part overlooks the Mississippi River
offering these amazing views. The lookouts are at the end of the short
trails through a dense, very peaceful history of maples and the views
are breathtaking – some with very romantic perches in which you and one
A significant other can sit comfortably for hours.

* Lake Elmo Regional Park Reserve. It's so close to downtown Paul yet
It offers remote and affordable campsites and several miles of cross-country trails.
The campsites are along a corridor about 100 m from the parking lot.
area and each one is set in deep foliage, so the level of privacy is quite
also good. These are basic sites without many amenities around. These
They are good sites for relaxing or taking various walks.

* Crescent Lake Campground – This is outside the BWCA area in the
Superior National Forest. It's the best camp I've ever seen –
based on my tastes. Each site is on a hill or cut deep
woods for very private and serene environments.

* Split Rock Lighthouse State Park – One of the few really good campsites in
North Shore of Lake Superior only if not as well defined as
the others are. There are locations that extend for about ½ miles along
the rocky shore of the lake, each separated by a birch forest. O
sounds of water against the shore, breeze in the trees and the sea
the freshness of the area combines to make a very relaxing camp

* Crosby-Manitou State Park – Like Lake Maria, this is just a backpacker
park. The sites are situated along the rocky banks of the river, many
walking distance to jagged waterfalls and thundering waterfalls.

* Very romantic in a Grizzly Adams way, like most of them.
Voyageurs National Park Kabetogama Lake Region – I couldn't resist
offering campgrounds scattered throughout the southern region of the park.
Many are unique campsites on small rocky islands – no chance of
invasion by other campers! They are all accessible by water, but what is it?
more romantic than a boat going out to a private campsite surrounded by a
National park?

Many campgrounds in Minnesota state forests – Granted some
these are popular with knights, ORVs and fishermen, but if
you can find one that isn't being used you can have the whole forest to yourself
with trails and rivers and lakes in abundance. These offer very few
amenities but if you are independent and interested in dating the day
Outside, you will not need any extra.


Would you recommend honeymooners or couples looking for a single
Romantic adventure they try to camp, and if so, why?


From my perspective, if a guy can find a woman who really likes camping
(not parking a large trailer on a flat lawn and driveway), so it doesn't matter
Where are you going. However, I think I really understand a person you need to see
how self-confident they can be. I think camping brings this and separates
those who need things and those who can survive without complaint. Get
those below right and the rest will be easy. Find the right camp
The partner can be the springboard for many other successful interactions.


Has there been any change in the camp's popularity in the last thirty
years, and if so, why?


There was definitely a change in the definition. It's amazing how
Many RV parks with concrete slats and broom trees are listed as
"camps". There are fewer and fewer places to actually launch a
tent in a primitive "camp" setting.

Our wealthy society allows us to buy larger units more, but perhaps it is more that as we get older we still enjoy the outdoors and "assisted camping" units help people to do so.

I think the swings in the economy also affect the camp. Instead of long,
thousand-mile trips for a week, families are making shorter weekend trips
and let's go camping instead of spending more money on hosting and extras
gas. Overall, I think camping is generally a bit more popular.


What does travel mean to you?


Traveling means traveling at least 80 km for business or pleasure.
"Traveling" as a hobby or activity, of course, conjures up images of new,
exciting or relaxing destinations. I am a naturalist, so "traveling" means
seeing and experiencing new environments, new flora and fauna, as well as new
cultures and lifestyles – that's why "traveling" is such a good education


How do you have ideas for what you write? What methods do you use to
concretize your idea to determine if it is salable?


I try to see what's covered in current magazines to see if I have
experienced some new areas that are timely and can be written
informative and fun way. I love photography and usually not always
consider a story, unless I know I have good photo support. That is
Also a good selling tool for publishers. Otherwise, I look at the features in
Internet, newsroom groups, etc. that will list topics of interest or announce
opportunities. Menasha Ridge already had a good base for hiking books, but
I needed one from Minneapolis. It was where I lived, so there was a chance of
make a guide in my own backyard. Once you have a "feel" for
magazine, you begin to anticipate what may be sold by them.


What challenges or obstacles did you encounter while writing your books? How
Did you overcome these challenges?


Frankly, the biggest challenge is always if I could cover the state or
topic completely given the budget (what I would pay for it and the expenses
I would have to do so) to find appropriate information as soon as
started, and most importantly, that someone would care enough to want to read
about this. When I started the camping book, I didn't know which ones I could
use and which one would not measure. Sometimes I drove for two hours
just to find out that there really wasn't a campsite you'd like to recommend or
this fits your criteria.

Minnesota is a state large enough that one weekend to cover the area I was researching I put 1100 miles in my car – and it was out of my pocket. You overcome obstacles by deciding that you will complete the task and become more experienced in ways to optimize travel and budget during the research part.


How did you use the Internet to boost your writing career?


80% of my writing opportunities start on the Internet. I belong to
the OWAA (Association of Outdoor Writers of America). Their website offers
Monthly updates from publishers looking for specific topics. Other sites do the

I also use the Internet to check facts or to learn more about
something new and check what was posted in the type of
magazine I usually write for (kayaking, camping, outdoor gear,
tourist destinations, etc.).


Who are your favorite authors and why do they inspire you?


As a child, Jules Verne always piqued my imagination and Sam Clemens
rekindled the kind of feelings that I had grown in Missouri (at the same time
I must add). I really enjoyed Edgar Allen Poe's macabre and
Robert Frost's poetry, very popular writers – but they all
allowed my imagination to complement theirs.

Unfortunately I don't read as much as I should, so the authors not only
in the conversation. I write a lot, creating my own things. If I had to
choose an author I really enjoyed reading recently it would have to be
Gabriel Garcia Marquez – Your Collection of Short Stories Is Wonderfully
imaginative and a bit "weird".

I always liked Ray Bradbury and the amazing group of writers from Twilight Zone. This is totally different from the type of writing I am writing now. Guide books and magazine articles. Fiction is a much harder and higher level than I hope to aspire to one day.


As there does not seem to be any authoritarian pattern that exists to
guide authors or editors, as you know a guide is available
pair? How do you confer authorial competence?


For me there are two types of "guide books": those that are basically a
compilation of data, sometimes intelligently organized to look new and
different, but basically a collection of lists on the Internet.

Other books are opinion articles that use a specific activity or skill and the
the author's breadth of knowledge to know what is important, etc.
the author must first reveal himself, offer a profile so the reader can
say, "yes, I identify with this person, so what they like I probably
to like ".

In that sense, I approach what I would consider a good
Nice campground or trail. I tell the reader right away that I'm a
photographer and naturalist so i'll stop and smell the roses or take a
image, even on the seemingly more mundane trails. I also offer a
historical perspective – most publishers want you to qualify

I grew up in Minnesota mostly (except the summers we spent
Missouri) and worked in the Boy Scouts. I spent a lot of time
outdoors, on trails, hiking and such. I had a sense about these books before
I started my research. Another big factor, frankly, is that this is a
business, pleasant, but a business. Unless you produce a product
People will buy, you will not be in the business of writing for long. It's at
least a work hobby and as such requires some discipline and taxation


How do you blend your photojournalism with your travel writing?


People like to imagine themselves in a photo. "I wish it were me
paddling that kayak in Alaska! "A good photo attracts a reader to the story-
Let's see what you are talking about.

Sometimes an editor restricts the number of words they want so much. A good photo can convey the information you need with very few words. I am proud to be a good
photographer and I know a lot of stories were sold because there were good ones
sharp and colorful supportive photography offered with writing. Photos too
help me recover areas without making many notes.

I spent a whole month in Peru and recorded probably 30 rolls of film. I used about 8 pages of a diary – most identifying some of the subjects in the photos I took. I will go then
go back and review the photos to see how many I could offer for a variety of
different story ideas. Sometimes these images get ahead
cover – a good bonus!


What comes next for Tom Watson?


I really want to follow some Roald-style fiction writings
Dahl, or some of the writers, camped out for the old Twilight Zone series.

As for magazines and guides, I will continue to regard them as those
Opportunities appear. It's a good income and allows me to share some
Exciting adventures with those eager to do the same. Thank you for allowing me
to share this with you.

Thanks again Tom and good luck with all your future endeavors.

Source by Norm Goldman

My grandfather John Jones and the Pullman Sleeping Car Chargers

My grandfather, John Jones was born in Gonzales, Texas, in September 1888. He grew up in this small town and attended the local school. At sixteen and after bringing a young girl, Minnie Weathers, to his wife, he moved to the then Fort Worth Cattle Empire, Texas.

For over forty years, my grandfather's job was to be a member of an elegant group of distinguished black gentlemen known as the Pullman Sleeping Car Porters or simply Pullman Porters. Named after George Pullman of the Pullman Palace Train Car Company, the inventor of the Pullman Sleeping Car, which was designed for luxurious long-distance train travel.

Like Pullman Porter, my grandfather traveled from his home in Fort Worth on various US rail routes to the Texas and Pacific Railroad during the heyday of train travel from 1922 to 1962 when he retired.

When I, his grandson, born in Fort Worth, moved to Kansas City, Missouri in 1977, he told me many stories about his train trip to Kansas City. He said he arrived at the second largest train station in the country, Union Station in downtown (Grand Central Station in New York, being the first) and saw all the advertisement signs on a hill in front of the station (where now is the Westin Crown Center Hotel) and then spend the night at the Streets Hotel for Blacks, located in what is now known as the 18th & Vine Historic Jazz District.

My grandparents have been married for 65 years. They raised seven children, all of them college graduates with the salary he received and the tips he received from the many passengers he served. My grandmother died in 1978 while my grandfather was 99 years old and died on Thursday, June 9, 1988, just a few months before turning 100.

The Pullman Porters and their rich American history: George Pullman of the Pullman Palace Train Car Company, founded in 1862, manufactured wagons and developed the Pullman deluxe wagon, used on trains for long and night trips. These train cars, first introduced to the railroad in 1867, had carpets, curtains, upholstered chairs, libraries and card tables, and private dormitories with beds and bathrooms for long train rides.

Mr. Pullman came up with the idea of ​​hiring a group of very distinguished, handsome and well-dressed African-American men to serve as Pullman Porters to help train travelers with any needs they may have while on board. This proved to be a great job for the porters and was considered a very prestigious job in what Mr. Pullman called "Hotel on wheels".

During the 1920s, Mr. Pullman had over 9,800 Pullman train cars and employed over 12,000 African American porters. He was the largest single employer of blacks in the country at that time.

Daily work for a Pullman Porter was long and arduous, but it offered good wages during the period and also offered porters a chance to get to know the country. During the early years, they worked 400 hours a month and received 35 cents an hour or about $ 810 a year, plus the tips they would give. It was good money and allowed them to take good care of their families and send their children to college. His prestigious works also helped define the black middle class of the time.

The Pullman Porters were basically bred and had to endure all the humiliating behavior of white travelers. There were many times when they were not called by name, but called "George" after George Pullman or simply "boy" that everyone hated.

His daily work included shiny shoes, making beds, providing room service, helping with luggage, or just about anything the passenger wanted or needed. The better the service, the better the tips they would expect to receive. Sometimes a quarter and sometimes even a rare dollar if they did a very good job. In addition, Pullman Company's work policy was strict and allowed porters to sleep only four hours a night and they had to pay for their uniforms, wood and food.

On August 25, 1925, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was founded by a black businessman, A. Philip Randolph. It was the first all-black union in the country and helped pave the way for better job benefits for shippers.

On August 25, 1937, Pullman Company signed an employment contract with Pullman Porters, which became the first employment contract between black workers and a large American company. The result of the contract included benefits such as reduced working hours from 400 per month to 250 and salary increase from $ 67.50 per month to a minimum of $ 89.50 per month.

The Pullman Porters were highly respected members of their communities and were credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America as black doctors, lawyers, and educators of the time.

In 1968, the Pullman Company ceased operation of its sleeping wagons and several railway companies took over the Pullman Car function. The shippers were transferred to companies like Union Pacific Railroad and later Amtrak.

In conclusion, if you've had a chance to catch the Amtrak train today and see a good black man taking care of your every need, tip him well and remember the proud story of the Sleeping Car Porters Brotherhood, and in particular remember my grandfather pullman porter john jones not "George" or "Boy".

Source by Donald CD Gardner

A Condensed History of the North American Fur Trade

The evolution of cooking has come a long way since the days of eating, when possible, of the French Canadian Voyageurs and the American Mountain Men, who served as the first working horses carrying the burdens and dangers of the first Canadian fur traders. Americans eat when convenient, possible by contemporary, well-equipped high-tech kitchens.

In popular folklore, the far west fur trade seems to have started with John Colter, a member of the famous Lewis and Clark expedition. On their way back to St. Louis, Missouri, from their winter quarters at Ft Clatsop, on the southern coast of the Columbia River mouth, for nearly two years of pilgrimage in the unfamiliar western desert near the end, they arrived in the spring of 1806 in the villages of Mandan, near present-day Mandan, North Dakota.

There they met two border men who were traveling up the Missouri River to hunt fur, Forest Hancock and Joseph Dickson. Colter approached Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and asked permission to join Hancock and Dickson as the only man authorized to leave the expedition before its conclusion. Due to his exemplary service throughout the ordeal, the captains granted their request and thus began two extraordinary years of adventures and wanderings during which, among other achievements, Colter "discovered" Jackson Hole today, Grand Teton National Park and "Colter" # 39; s Hell ", commonly considered the geyser basin of what is now Yellowstone National Park. In fact, it was more likely to be an area later called" Stinkin "Hole, an equally geothermally active region of the Shoshone River to the east. from Yellowstone Park, near nowadays in Cody, Wyoming.

But Cody's best known, some may say there were no adventures, occurred in 1808 when he and his trap partner at the time, a man named John Potts (also Lewis & Clark Expedition veteran) were canoeing down the Jefferson River in what is now southern Montana, south of Three Forks, when they encountered a large band of the hostile and notoriously fierce Blackfoot tribe. The Blackfeets demanded that they land. Colter obeyed, and in so doing was disarmed and undressed. But Potter refused and was shot and wounded. Potter returned the fire and was promptly dispatched after being riddled with Blackfoot bullets and his body cut off.

The Blackfeets held a council to determine Colter's fate, after which Colter was summoned and instructed in Crow to start running. Thus began a remarkable sequence of events. Naked completely and realizing that he was literally running for his life, chased by a bunch of brave young men, each eager to capture the honor of claiming his scalp after several miles of very fast running (note this, all of you marathoners! ) Colter, utterly exhausted and his nose bleeding profusely, turned his head to see everything except a brave loner falling far behind in the race. The rest would be burglar soon beat Colter. What happened next is described in the immortal words of 1817 by John Bradbury, a Scottish botanist who traveled extensively through the American West in the early 19th century:

Again he turned his head and saw the savage within twenty yards of him. Determined, if possible, to avoid the expected blow, he suddenly stopped, turned, and extended his arms. The Indian, surprised at the speed of the action, and perhaps Colter's bloody appearance, also tried to stop; but exhausted by the race, he fell as he tried to throw his spear, which stuck to the ground and broke in his hand. , with which he arrested him on earth and continued his flight ".

Colter also grabbed the blanket from the unfortunate hero-aspirant and continued his flight toward the ultimate escape and freedom until he reached the Madison River, when, with incredible presence of mind, he jumped in, spied a raft near fallen trees pinned against him. other side. From the seat, he grabbed one of the rushes growing next to it, then dived and hid under the raft, using the hollow straw like a straw through which he could breathe as he felt the vibrations of the brave Blackfoot as they raced back and forth through him. from the ferry. he the rest of the day (note this, all of you snorkelers!).

As night fell, the Blackfeet, believing that he had escaped, retreated to their camp at the start of their unlikely race many miles away, and Colter emerged cautiously, alive but cold and aching, from his hiding place and began his retreat. long journey through the mountains and intermediate plains back to the Missouri River and St. Louis. Shortly after retiring to St. Louis, the young (but quite old!) Colter was plagued by a lovely girl, and soon he was caught in the bonds of marital happiness that bound him as surely as his own traps. had arrested. beavers in your previous life. A few years after his engagement and new life as a farmer on nearby land that he had bought with what was left of the proceeds from selling his fur, John Colter passed into Eternity. It was never determined whether John's premature disappearance was the result of a shock caused by the sudden transition of his wanderings through unfamiliar and unfamiliar lands to a life of domesticity or whether the extreme hardships of that strenuous life finally reached him and took its final price in the form. to succumb to an unexpectedly premature maturity.

In fact, the North American fur trade was founded in the early seventeenth century (1608) by French New World settlers, who were initially hired servants who served at the pleasure of their sponsor for a fixed period of time in exchange for their own. assets. passage from Europe to the coasts of North America. In fact, they were slaves to their masters until their commitments were fulfilled and their masters were financially shrewd entrepreneurs. (In fact, there were a small number of equally astute businesswomen in French Canada at the time, who knew no less about the riches to be exploited by exploiting European high demand for the vast wealth of fine fur that the Interior was known to produce and leverage. the economy). the labor of their hired "servants," ie slaves).

These incredibly strong and resilient men (many of today's most legendary would be labeled "Super Men") took the trouble of breaking their backs and long, arduous days of canoeing via Montreal from Montreal in the first break in the spring. to places as far away as the Northern Canadian Rockies (think of Edmonton and Jasper), before returning with hundreds of 90kg bales in late summer, arriving in Montreal just before the freeze. Along the extensive routes of the Quetico Lakes in southern Ontario and the border waters in northern Minnesota, many exhausting passages were required, in which each man, who was usually small, carried two 90 lb packages. in the back for the duration of the pass. . There are documented examples of some men carrying three of these packs in the literature of the time, and traditional tales tell of at least one 6 "and 8" giant who has allegedly carried seven of these packs.

In practice, few of these Voyageurs, as they are generally known throughout the ages, made the entire journey from Montreal to the destination of their cargo and those who spent the winter there. Soon this custom spread to include some who chose to weather the demanding winters of the middle country. (Temperatures at Minnesota's Lake of the Woods weather station are occasionally known to plunge to -60 ° C) comparable to today's freezes in Fairbanks, Alaska, deep in the Cheena River basin, where average temperatures warmed. measurably over the last decades). The standard practice was to break the journey in half, with the eastern and western teams gathering to exchange hundreds of tons of cargo at the annual meeting at Grand Portage, on the bank of a small bay on the north side of Lake Superior, in the opposite corner. from northeast Minnesota. Those who chose to endure the severe harsh winters in the interior of Canada were called hommes du nord (northern men) or hivernants (winters). They often brought native wives, had children, and raised families with them, generating a historically underprivileged and unrecognized class of citizens called Metìs, who tended to congregate in their own settlements along the Red River in Manitoba. Eventually, they were destined to play a significant role in expanding the western fur trade to the south of Louisiana.

Eastern teams were called lard mangeurs (pork eaters) because their diets consisted mainly of salted pork, produced in Montreal and supplied by their owners. Western crews tended to rely mostly on pemmican, the dried and fresh game meat that originally also came from Montreal, but as trade matured, it began to be manufactured at Grand Portage for distribution to Western crews. The meeting served a dual purpose – providing both a place for formal cargo swapping and the occasion for a few days of raucous and obscene debauchery before resuming the arduous journey of the once-departing canoe fleets. sober Voyageurs.

In 1670, the King of France granted an exclusive royal charter for the North American fur trade to the Hudson's Bay Company. Over the next twenty years, policies have changed and restrictions have eased, allowing the formation of its new arch rival, the Northwest Company. The two companies engaged in cruel and violent competition for men, resources, and native alliances to block their sources of fur, as unlike the more advanced Americans on the mountain, Voyageurs rarely engaged in hunting and trapping. if, preferring to leave. this task for the native peoples who have met and trade with the natives for their skins. The emergence of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1770 imposed organization and structure on an industry that until then consisted mainly of a relatively informal and loose confederation of individual masters and their hired employees. With the advent of stiff competition announced by the rise of the Northwest Company, the whole appearance of independent fur operations was extinguished and the two companies fought it until the toll grew so much after twenty years of fighting and stealing from each other. s resources, they were finally forced to merge in 1821.

The merger also signaled the end of Voyageur as a generic water-based adventurer. In fact, these men formed a classified class of expert adventurers. The Voyageurs occupied the highest hierarchy and specifically were employees of the HBC / NWC joint venture who had the highly valued physical abilities and abilities of the traditional Voyageurs. As such, they rarely strayed from their watercraft and waterways. The original and independent Voyageurs (after fulfilling any previous obligations) took the name of coureur des bois, which generally traveled through New France without hindrance and at will. Their numbers declined as HBC / NWC businesses flourished. Finally, there were the engagés, more or less ordinary workers used to the outdoors and skilled in frontier vessels who made themselves available to those who needed their services to do what they were asked to do.

The birth and subsequent growth of the American western fur trade followed a very different path. Its nascent beginnings, certainly when considering formalized organization and structure, can be found in the establishment, with the consent of Thomas Jefferson, then US president, of John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, in the spring of 1808, even before the return. triumphant St. Louis by Discovery Expedition pioneer Lewis & Clark Corps. and it was a merchant named Manual Lisa who, in the same spring of 1808, promoted John Colter's fateful encounter with two of his men, Forest Hancock and Joseph Dickson, on his way to the river to establish the first American trading post west of the country. Mississippi River, at the mouth of the famous Yellowstone River, where it flows into Missouri, near what is now Williston, North Dakota.

In 1810 Astor mounted an overland expedition to Fort Astoria, which he founded in 1811 with a group of men he had sent around Cape Horn on the American merchant ship Tonquin to compete against the NWC inland posts. By 1813 he had had enough, and alarmed by the unexpected appearance of the British battleship HMS Racoon during the War of 1812, in 1813 he agreed to sell his Astoria assets to the NWC, which renamed Fort George's outpost.

The following years were ups and downs for the Astor American Fur Company until 1822, when William Henry Ashely, in partnership with Andrew Henry, formed the very successful Rocky Mountain Fur, Inc to compete with Astor AFC. The intense competition that followed paralleled ferociously, though later, the previous HBC / NWC contest for power in the fur trade. The discipline it has imposed on the fiercely independent series of American Mountain Men has so far resulted in a system of scheduled encounters at specific locations and times each summer, when hunters who spend the winter in the remote desert, independently and under direct employment. One of the two fur-collecting companies met at a designated time and place to trade their fur for the next year's supplies that they needed to see during the winter.

The annual freight mule supply train returning after each meeting was organized every spring in St. Louis by a famous Great Plains merchant named Bill Sublette and his four brothers. The timing was intricate for the day, as all the distance had to be traveled at a carefully calculated pace to arrive at the agreed time and place of that year's meeting. As they began arriving from every corner of the vast western desert of the Americas, the Mountain Men dispatched horsemen to the east until they saw the distant dust cloud of the slowly approaching Sublette's mule train upon which the mounts swung around. and run headlong to a desperate camp to hear the first sounds of screaming and shouting "He's almost here, he's almost here!" In addition to the various grains and various tools of commerce they would need, as well as the varied sorts of accessories every Highlander chose to fill his "possible bag" and vital gunpowder, musket balls, and beaver traps, Bill was known for packing. prodigious amounts of whiskey, from which no canister ever came out of a single drop of fire, meaning that the next fifty weeks would be bone-dry for mountain men.

The result was a brutally shrill, obscene, quarrelsome event that consistently exceeded even the infamous Voyageurs & # 39; Grand Portage Meeting. The meetings were usually held at convenient locations for Sublette across the South Pass, the large and relatively easy passage through Continental Divide, at the southern end of the rugged Wyoming River Range, which later facilitated most of the time. the pioneer wagon from the west trains first for Oregon and then California, beginning in 1840. Places like Ham's Fork on the Green River that crosses the valley on the west side of the Wind or Bear Lake in Utah.

Many of the mountain men, who were the American version of Canadian French hivernants, like their counterparts, brought native wives and raised families with them, often hiding in remote Indian villages while trapping nearby streams and moving with them as they migrated. whenever conditions required. They usually brought their spouses with them to the meeting, and then continued as they wished. Meetings were often also attended by many brave, warrior, and young native maidens, the maidens mostly by the beads and trinkets they knew Sublette, the brave and warriors mostly by whiskey and the games of strength and strength. agility that characterized these meetings. Most of the time, enmities were set aside for the duration of these celebrations, but not always. There is a little-known Old West term called "Until the Green River." Legend has it that this term was coined during an incident, possibly at a Ham meeting on the Fork. Green River knives were highly prized and sought Sublette specialties for their unusual sharpness and toughness. The story is set that night after draining the contents of a pitcher of "Green River Whiskey" (ie whiskey that Sublette, seeking more lucrative returns, often diluted in Green River water before selling it to hunters) , two hunters who were supposedly not the friendliest terms out of the meeting, became quarrelsome and one thrust the Green River knife into the other to the hilt, killing him instantly. Such drunken violence is hardly uncommon between meetings, and the term "Until the Green River" continues.

There is evidence that, even before the Lewis and Clark expedition, the Metì traders had opened trails from southern Canada to the United States, initially following the Red River south along the border between present-day Minnesota and North Dakota. to its source at the confluence of the Sioux and Otter Tail Bulls between Minnesota and North Dakota. There is some indication that they have reached the Yellowstone and Teton areas in the northwest corner of Wyoming and possibly over Teton Pass, at the southern end of the Teton Range, to the Snake River Valley in Idaho. The latter statement seems to be based primarily on speculation that Grant Teton derives its name, at least in part, from the striking resemblance of its horizon to the bosom of an exceptionally well-endowed woman, or "teton" in colloquial French when viewed. from the west.

Outside this unique period of American history, some of the larger-than-life figures of exclusively American legend and mythology emerged. Men like Jim Bridger, universally regarded by his colleagues at that special time and place as the Supreme Mountain Man among many truly great mountain men. Kit Carson, Joe Meeker, Mike Fink, Hugh Glass, Jed Smith, California Joe Walker, "Broken Hand" Tom Fitzpatrick, "Old" Bill Williams, Jim Beckwourth (who, it may be noted, was unique as part Cherokee and part Afro to name but a few. Let's take a look at one of its most outstanding leaders.

Jedediah Strong Smith was born to Jed Smith and Sally Strong in 1798, one of the leading mountain men of his day. Known as fearful but strict, God fearing, a total exception to the universal code of mountain men, Jed was as widely respected as feared. He was often portrayed as riding through the jungle carrying a Bible in one hand and his musket in the other, equally ready to use as the situation demanded. Rough and fallen hunters quickly learned to care about their tongues when they were in Jed's presence.

In early August 1826, Smith and a group of fifteen hunters set off for their second meeting at Bear Lake, at the northern corner junction of central Utah and southeastern Idaho, bent on finding a route around the forbidden lane. of Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada. The time was known as Spanish Alta California. Crossing the present day from Utah and Nevada, they finally came to a Colorado River crossing between southern California and central Arizona. In the beginning, they took shelter and recovered for a few days in a friendly village of Mojave, near what is now Needles, CA, before being guided through the Mojave Desert by the Mojave Trail by two errant mission deserters. Arriving in the San Bernardino Valley, Smith and his interpreter left for the local mission when he introduced himself to his priest. The next day, the rest of Smith's men arrived, at which point all their weapons were confiscated by the garrison. Smith was soon summoned to appear before the governor of Alta California, San Diego, who expressed alarm over his unauthorized entry into Spanish territories and ordered his arrest while demanding that Smith demand his map and diary. Smith responded by asking permission to travel north along the coast to the Columbia River, where there was an established outpost and access to a well-known route back to US territories. The governor responded by ordering Smith and his party to leave California as they had arrived, giving them room to buy the supplies needed for their return to American lands.

In early 1827, Smith finally obtained his exit visa, but by clearing the settlements, he turned north, exploring and trapping his way to the San Joaquin Valley, California, to the American River, which joined the Sacramento River. near the current Sacramento. Upon reaching it, his group tried to find a route through the Sierra Nevada following its canyon upstream, but was forced back. Realizing that it was too late in the year to reach the Columbia River, Smith took his backpack to the Stanislaus River, where they established a winter camp. Smith then picked two men and forced a difficult Sierra Nevada crossing, eventually descending to the current Walker Lake neighborhood, from where they followed the fastest possible way to make their third encounter at Bear Lake. After a terrifying Great Basin Desert crossing, during which they nearly expired from dehydration under the relentless early summer sun, they arrived at Bear Lake in early July, early in the meeting. Long given up as hopelessly lost in their meanderings or dead, the men were very happy with the appearance of the three hunters and explorers who unexpectedly descended upon them and received them with cannon fire.

Smith immediately left with eighteen Canadian men and two French women, following the same path as last year to fetch the men he had left behind. This time, however, the Mojave became hostile after a confrontation with Taos hunters, and there was a shooting when Smith attempted to cross the river during the course in which ten Smith men were killed, one was seriously injured, and the two women were captured. The eight surviving men retreated and crossed the Mojave Desert on foot before reaching the San Bernardino valley, where they were well received. Smith then drove through the San Joaquin Valley until he met his group from the previous year and together they traveled to Mission San Jose, where they were met with reservations and suspicion, before proceeding to Yerba Buena (now San Francisco) and finally Monterey, then the capital. from Upper California, where the governor resided at the time.

The governor again arrested Smith, along with his men, and held them until several English-speaking residents approved him, after which they were released and immediately ordered to leave Upper California by the fastest route possible. Once again out of sight, Smith and his group remained around Sacramento Valley, imprisoning and hunting for several months. Upon reaching their head, after exploring it, they determined that the northeast route offered by the Pit River was impassable, so they headed northwest toward the Pacific coast, renewing their commitment to finding a way to the Columbia River to His salvation and along the way became the first men to cross the territory of Oregon along the coastal route, reach the Columbia River and return to the Rocky Mountains.

Under the 1818 Treaty, Oregon Country was under joint British and American occupation. Smith and his men soon found the Umpqua tribe, which distrusted their presence. When one of them stole an ax from Smith's party, he and his men treated them severely to force their return. In mid-July, on a night when Smith took two men to explore a trail leading north, the group left behind was attacked while camped on the banks of the Umpqua. At the end of the first week of August, one of them appeared in Fort Vancouver at the mouth of Columbia, severely injured and in tatters. He reported to Factor that he believed he was the only survivor, but did not know the fate of Smith and his two men. Two days later, they also appeared, reporting that, after learning of the attack, had returned, climbed a nearby hill and witnessed. A relief expedition was organized and dispatched to the scene, but all were found dead and decaying and were buried at the scene. Smith remained in Fort Vancouver until 1829, during which time the Factor, Dr. John McLoughlin, treated the survivors, replenished their supplies in exchange for the skins that had been recovered from the massacre site, and restored their health to where they had long been. trip back to Bear Lake, which they completed without incident.

Smith returned to St. Louis in 1830 and decided to abandon the northern fur trade, which had already begun to wane due to a combination of beaver depletion caused by heavy traps and a diminishing demand for beaver skins caused by fashion changes. in Europe they have spread. to North America and experience the trade of Santa Fe and Taos. At the end of May 1831, Smith was traveling with a supply train to negotiate in Santa Fe when he left the train for water and never returned. The train continued, believing that Smith would reach them. He never did. After arriving in Santa Fe, they found a comanchero who owned Smith's personal belongings. After interrogation, the Comanchero confessed that Smith had found a band of Comanche warriors, and after being surrounded, he tried to negotiate with them and solve the problem unsuccessfully. The Comanches then attacked Smith and dispatched him, but not before he killed their boss. It was an ignominious end to such a bold and bold trail blazer.

Pierre's meeting point (in southeastern Idaho, west of the Tetons) is known as the 1832 meeting point as marking the height of the fur trade era in the American West. As noted earlier, the fur trade was already starting to decline. In 1838, the last major gathering was held near present-day Riverton, Wyoming. In 1840, the first Oregon Migration outliers appeared at Jim Bridger's Fort Bridger, near today in Laramie, Wyoming, and most active mountain men had read the inevitable letter on the wall. One by one, they abandoned Trapper's free life, which so long ago took and hired their much-needed skills, knowledge and services for the hordes of novices struggling to cross the vast arid lands between South Pass after traversing the formidable Great Plains to the lush Willamette Valley, with its fantastic terrain of Oregon territory before the onset of winter.

In 1837, a talented young American artist named Alfred Jacob Miller, while visiting New Orleans, joined the Scottish nobleman Sir William Drummond Stewart's exploration / sport expedition, which hired Miller to accompany his expedition to the Rockies. official artist in charge of creating accurate interpretations of everything they encountered along the way. Together with German artist Karl Bodmer, who preceded Miller while accompanying German Prince Maximilian's exploratory expedition to Upper Missouri between 1832 and 1834, they are the only known artists to competently portray the daily activities and environments of the various lowland tribes before. of massive corruption be introduced by fulfilling the doctrine of Manifest Destiny of America.

Of the two, Bodmer could barely make out the horizon beyond the "Bright Mountain" peaks, as the easternmost range of the Northern Montana Rockies was known for its early penetrators. Miller, on the other hand, penetrated the Rocky Mountains enough to watch and record the Green River meeting in 1837 (Siskeedee-Agie) near the present day Daniel, Wyoming. While both left priceless sketches and paintings of great historical interest to the American Fur Trade Era, the Millers were more accurate, detailed and better defined. Besides, Miller is the only one in the scene we have of mountain men in action. In 1838, he returned with Stewart, paintings and drawings in hand, to Stewart's Scottish estate, Murthy Castle, where Stewart took possession of Miller's precious recordings and stored them there. They were never heard until shortly after the end of World War II, when they were discovered hidden in a Dutch attic to prevent them from looting the hands of their Nazi conquerors. Voltando aos Estados Unidos, a maioria agora é preservada em um ambiente cuidadosamente controlado do Smithsonian, onde permanece como um dos nossos maiores tesouros americanos.

Esta é, então, uma breve história do cenário em que as práticas modernas de culinária e alimentação podem ser avaliadas. Substituindo as chaleiras pretas, frigideiras de ferro, espetos frescos e fogueiras que caracterizaram os primeiros exploradores e empreendedores. cozinhas ao ar livre que viajavam para onde andavam e eram montadas sempre que as condições permitidas são hoje as maravilhas das cozinhas domésticas de alta tecnologia, com moedores elétricos, trituradores, fatias, raladores, liquidificadores, liquidificadores, churrasqueiras, fritadeiras, panelas de pressão, aquecedores de comida, caçarola panelas, frangos de corte, fornos de convecção, grelhadores, frigideiras, fornos de microondas, cafeteira / café com leite, refrigeradores de garrafas, máquinas de fazer gelo, geladeiras, freezers, lava-louças, trituradores de lixo, compactadores de lixo e, sim, até cervejarias domésticas.

Nas próximas semanas, iniciaremos discussões sobre isso, dissecando seus vários usos e capacidades, além de apresentar algumas idéias inovadoras de receitas, também através da nossa série de blogs. Nós transformaremos a arte de cozinhar de uma tarefa necessária em um hobby emocionante e agradável com a participação de todos.

Source by Peter G Brabeck

Tokyo then and now

I hate to say that, but I must. When I arrived in Japan over 20 years ago, I was very disappointed with the look of Tokyo. Not only was it really ugly, ugliness grew forever. While waiting for the exotic Far East, temples and wooden structures with pointed roofs, cobblestone alleys with people pulling carts of mysterious items, what I found were miles upon miles of monotonous, flagged concrete buildings. Buildings that would be better suited as parking garages than offices and apartments. Along with the buildings were huge avenues and cars; cars and motorbikes in the millions. And people, of course, so many people that you had to dodge from here to there. Still, it was very different from Missouri, where I was born and raised.

But Tokyo has since changed in almost every way I can imagine. For one thing, the crowds really came together. Somehow, inexplicably, navigational rules have emerged, making the passage from here to there a relatively painless experience, although you feel like sardines in a tremendous school of fish. But most notable is the sky; gigantic skyscraper projects have been carried out in the last twenty years. Appearing in every city center, modern, attractive buildings sprang up overnight, lending drama and excitement to what used to be a barren desert of concrete buildings. And the building goes on. It's not Manhattan, but Tokyo now competes with the best cities in Asia.

The transportation system is amazing. Buses, trains, bullet trains, subways. Anything you can ask for, Tokyo has it. The subway system, for example, runs through Tokyo in a matter of minutes. Trains branch to cities throughout Japan. Uyeno Station is one of the major train and subway centers. It has platforms on 6 levels, with trains spread all over Japan. Hundreds of thousands of people go there every day.

In short, Tokyo has greatly improved over the last twenty years and is a very nice place to live compared to what it once was. It is more educated, more international and more talented. Tokyo is smarter. More sophisticated and much more fun to visit. Just think what it will be like 20 years from now.

Source by Dinah Jackson